Conjunctions

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Part of Speech (POS)

Part 6

Conjunctions

Conjunctions join ideas and words together. There are many different kinds, but the two basic groups of conjunctions are coordinating and subordinating.

In the English language, conjunctions come in three basic types:

● The coordinating conjunction
● The subordinating conjunction
● The correlative conjunction

Coordinating conjunctions = are the most common one. The main function of coordinating conjunctions is to join words, phrases, and clauses together, which are usually grammatically equal.
Examples = and, but, for, nor, or, so, and yet

Sentence example: Blue refuses to eat dry dog food, *nor will he go near a bowl of cat food.

Subordinating conjunction = has two jobs. First it provides a necessary transition between the two ideas in a sentence. This transition will indicate a time, place, or cause and effect relationship.

Examples: After, although, as, because, rather than, since, so that, *where, etc.

Sentence example = We looked on top of the refrigerator, *where Lisa will often hide a bage of potato chips.
where = subordinating conjunction

The second job of the subordinating conjunction is to reduce the importance of one clause so that a reader understands which of the two ideas is more important.

Sentence example: As Jenny blew out the birthday candles on top of the cake, she burned the tip of her nose on the stubborn flame.

Burning her nose =  the main clause
Blowing out candles = less important in the clause.

Correlative conjunction = as suggested by their name, correlative conjunctions correlate, working in pairs to join phrases or words that carry equal importance within a sentence.

Some correlative conjunctions =

● Rather / than
● Whether / or
● Just as /so

When using correlative conjunctions, ensure verbs agree so that your sentence makes sense.

Sentence Example : Every night, *either loud music *or fighting neighbors wake John from his sleep. (either/or)

When you use a correlation conjunction, you must be sure the pronoun agrees.


Example: Neither Kim nor Tina expressed her annoyance when the puppy knocked over the lamp.(neither/nor)

When using correlative conjunctions, be sure to keep parallel structure intact. Equal grammatical units need to be incorporated into the entire sentence. For example : Not only did Mary grill burgers for Michael, but she also fixed a steak for her dog Lucy. (Not only/but/also.

Conjunction adverb =  parts of speech that are used to connect one clause to another. They are also used to show sequence, contrast, cause and effect, and other relationships.

Like other adverbs, conjunctive adverbs may be moved around in the sentence or clause in which they appear. This is just one of the things you’ll need to remember; additional rules for using conjunctive adverbs follow:

Always use a period or semicolon before the conjunctive adverb when separating two independent clauses. Conjunctive adverbs are not strong enough to join independent clauses without supporting punctuation.

Use a comma if a conjunction such as and, but, or, so appears between the conjunctive adverb and the first clause.

Use a comma behind conjunctive adverbs when they appear at the beginning of a sentence’s second clause. The only exception to this rule is that no comma is necessary if the adverb is a single syllable.

If a conjunctive adverb appears in the middle of a clause, it should be enclosed in commas most of the time. This is not an absolute rule and does not normally apply to short clauses.

Example:

● I like you a lot; in fact, I think we should be best friends.
● in fact =conjuntive adverb

You may begin a sentence with a conjunction, just make sure it’s not a sentence fragment.

Now it’s time for you to test your knowledge on conjunctions. Please complete the worksheet titled: conjunctions. You’ll find it on our website. Just click on dfoww.org menu button, then click worksheets button. There you will find the conjunction worksheet.

We hope you enjoyed this workshop!

Worksheets

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(ESL) English as a second language

Worksheet

Directions:

● Write your answers on a sheet of paper.

1. Casey ________ his friend at the mall.

A. talked
B. saw
C. seen
D. walk

2. Lisa ________ her sister of the bad weather.

A. warned
B. gave
C. visited
D. blamed

3. Joseph smiled at the woman ________ her newborn baby.

A. crying
B. yelling
C. carrying
D. singing

4. The ________ cited the man for not wearing his seat belt.

A. nurse
B. cow
C. jogger
D. policeman

5. Victor ________ the delicious, sweet watermelon.

A. eat
B. ate
C. cooked
D. dumped

6. My ________ is a very kind and compassionate spouse.

A. cat
B. car
C. turtle
D. husband

7. Linda has a nice ________ and sings beautifully.

A. hat
B. voice
C. refrigerator
D. camera

8. ________ fixed the broken door.

A. He
B. She
C. They
D. all of the above

9. Kelly called the fire-department when she realized her ________ was on fire.

A. pencil
B. coffee cup
C. house
D. ice cream

10. Frank needed a new ________ so that he could get back and forth to work.

A. oven
B. light bulb
C. computer
D. car

Correct answers

1. B
2. A
3. C
4. D
5. B
6. D
7. B
8. D
9. C
10. D

We hope you enjoyed this workshop!

Dowager

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Dowager

Definition:

1. a widow holding property or a title from her deceased husband

often used in combination with the title
queen dowager, dowager duchess

2. a dignified elderly woman

Part of Speech (POS)

noun

I’ll use it in a sentence:

● The congregation’s dowager, donated an exorbitant amount of money to assist the congregation’s youth summer camp program.

● Despite lamenting over the death of her husband, the dowager took solace in knowing she was financially well off.

● Lady Willamina Bouvier the town’s dowager, was respected by everyone including the local elected officials.

● As a dowager, Ms. Debbie Guggenheim now owns the estate of her late husband.

● The queen dowager became gravely ill with legionnaires disease.

Now it’s your turn, on a sheet of paper or in the comment section below, write a few sentences using the word: dowager.

Tip: Use the word during a conversation today. The more you familiarize yourself with this word, by consistently incorporating it in your vocabulary and writing, the easier it will be to remember the word. Figuratively speaking, you’ll own the word.

We hope you enjoyed this workshop!

Word Game

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Congratulations Krissy Johnson! Krissy was the first person to answer correctly in last week’s word game workshop – building vocabulary.  Krissy has selected a word for dfoww to share for tomorrow’s word of the day workshop. 

Here are some clues:

1. The word begins with the letter (D).
2. The word is a noun.
3. The word contains 7 letters.
4. The word contains 3 vowels.
5. The word contains 4 consonants.
6. The last letter of the word is: (r).
7. An antonym of/for the word is: career woman.

Those are all the clues, we are able to provide. Can anyone guess the word?

*Word Game Rules

● Participants must post answer in comment section on dfoww website.

● The first person who answers correctly in the comment section will be announced as dfoww’s word game winner.

● Winners will be notified in the comment section on dfoww’s website.

● dfoww word game winners may participate in all future word games, however, are only eligible to win prizes once per month.

● Winners must email us within 24 hours to claim prize and provide our lead writer with their word choice for us to share.

● No profanity or reckless, incendiary words will be considered for publication.

● Our temporary email address is:

dfoww@comcast.net

Canard

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Canard

Definition:

1. an unfounded rumor or story.

2. canard is also an aviation term. It refers to the small, stabilizing wings toward the front of some aircraft, as well as to aircraft that have canards.

Part of Speech (POS)

noun

I’ll use it in a sentence:

● The story about Nicole being a prostitute, was a canard deliberately created to destroy her reputation.

● Because the canard wings were damaged on the airplane, the pilot was unable to fly the aircraft.

● Instead of being so credulous* about the canard, how you even asked him if it was true?

● The canard wings increase the aircraft’s performance.

● Because I’ve lost alot of weight, the canard floating around the neighborhood is that I’m on drugs.

● I was disconsolate after learning my best friend started the canard.

* dfoww will share the word: credulity, in our word of the day writing workshop, sometime in September 2019.

Now it’s your turn, on a sheet of paper or in the comment section below, write a few sentences using the word: canard.

Tip: Use the word during a conversation today. The more you familiarize yourself with this word, by consistently incorporating it in your vocabulary and writing, the easier it will be to remember the word. Figuratively speaking, you’ll own the word.

We hope you enjoyed this workshop.

dfoww is seeking volunteer editors and writers who can devote 2 – 3 hours per week, assisting our lead writer and editor. 

dfoww” is a small nonprofit organization, with very limited resources. If you are interested in volunteering your time, talent, and or monetarily, please email us directly or visit our go fund me page in the link below. We appreciate any and all donations provided in an effort to help us further our mission.

dfoww go fund me link

Our temporary email address is:

dfoww@comcast.net

Clues

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Tomorrow, dfoww will be sharing a word that begins with the letter (C). The word is a noun.

Clues

1. The word contains 6 letters.
2. The word contains 2 vowels.
3. An antonym of/for the word is: truth.
4. The last letter of the word is a consonant.

Those are all the clues, we are able to provide. Can anyone guess the word?

The first person to answer correctly in the comment section below will be selected by dfoww’s lead writer, to choose a word for us to share, for next week’s word of the day workshop.

Adjectives

dfoww

Part of Speech (POS)

Part 5

Adjectives

Adjectives are words that describe nouns and pronouns. They answer questions like what kind, how many, and which one. Adjectives are describing words that modify nouns.

Adjectives

● swarthy
● slim

Example of modifying a noun:

● Tall woman
● tall = adjective
● woman = noun

● Smart boy
● smart = adjective
● boy = noun

Adjectives can be divided into several classes.

● Adjectives of quality
● Adjectives of quantity
● Adjectives of number
● Demonstrative adjectives
● Interrogative adjectives

1. Adjectives of quality refer to a kind or quality of a person or thing. They answer the question ‘of what kind’?

2. Adjectives of quantity answer the question ‘how much’? Examples are: some, any, much, little etc.

3. Adjectives of number answer the question ‘how many’? Examples are: many, one, two, first etc.

4. Demonstrative adjectives answer the question ‘which’? Examples are: this, that, these, those,etc.

5. Interrogative adjectives are used in interrogative sentences to modify nouns found in the question. Example: what, which.

6. Possessive adjectives are used to indicate possession.

Example:

● My
● Your
● His
● Her
● Its
● Our
● Their

Possessive adjectives also function as possessive pronouns.

7. Comparative adjectives are used to compare differences between the two objects they modify (larger, smaller, faster, higher). They are used in sentences where two nouns are compared, in this pattern: Noun (subject) + verb + comparative adjective + than + noun (object).

Example:

● My car is larger then hers
● My hair is longer than his
● Your dress is shorter than mine

8. Superlative adjectives are used to describe an object which is at the upper or lower limit of a quality (the tallest, the smallest, the fastest, the highest). They are used in sentences where a subject is compared to a group of objects.

Noun (subject) + verb + the + superlative adjective + noun (object).

Example:

Adjective | comparative | superlative

● tall        |    taller        |     tallest

● big        |   bigger        |   biggest

Add -er for the comparative and -est for the superlative.

9.  Coordinate adjectives are adjectives that appear in sequence with one another to modify the same noun. For example, the adjectives in the phrases bright, sunny day and dark and stormy night are coordinate adjectives.

To test whether adjectives are coordinate, you can replace comma(s) with and. If the sentence makes sense with that change, and if you can rearrange the adjectives in any order without compromising sense, they pass the test.

Example:

● Bright, sunny day
● Gloomy, cloudy day
● Perilous, aberrant lifestyle

10. Non-coordinate adjectives should not be separated through comma as they are not equal. One adjective takes precedence over the other non-coordinate adjective.

Example:

● She wore a nice red
● I have two old
● I have two pair of tennis shoes

11. Articles: There are only three articles in the English language: a, an and the. Articles are actually adjectives because they describe the nouns that they precede.

Example:

● A — A singular, general item.

● An — A singular, general item. Use this before
words that start with a vowel.

● The — A singular or plural, specific item

Example:

Use ‘the’ to define something as specific:

This is (the) park.

(This is a previously specified park known to the audience).

Use ‘a’ or ‘an’ to define something as unspecific

This is a park.

(This is a previously unspecified park).

We hope you enjoyed this workshop. For additional information, please feel free to email us at:

dfoww@comcast.net